What are the investment options for Government?:- Fund developments using the Government budget Use private (equity & debt) capital, e.g. PPP Privatise existing state public service utilities What are the benefits (& dis-benefits) of using these options as a procurement mechanism? How successful has privatisation been in delivering investments? What are the funding options for power, infrastructure and PPP projects? How much debt? How much equity? Why? Who are the key investors in such projects? Why? What do investors seek, & what are their expectations and limits? What do bank lenders require, & what constraints do they impose? How best to attract capital markets (e.g. pension funds, life insurance companies and sovereign wealth funds) to such investments. Which funding options best match specific project opportunities, & why? What is the best recipe for success? Why have some projects failed? What have been the problems? Could they have been spotted earlier? What has been the international experience across sectors? How can failure be avoided? What steps should be taken in project preparation? How can political risk be mitigated? What clauses are key in the underlying project documents to ensure success? What role should Government take? Should they be a shareholder? What remedies are there when projects fail, or are faced with changing circumstances? .